WAN support

As the WAN port of a node will be connected to a user’s private network, it is essential that the node only uses the WAN when it is absolutely necessary. There are two cases in which the WAN port is used:

  • Mesh VPN (package gluon-mesh-vpn-fastd
  • DNS to resolve the VPN servers’ addresses (package gluon-wan-dnsmasq)

After the VPN connection has been established, the node should be able to reach the mesh’s DNS servers and use these for all other name resolution.

Routing tables

As a node may get IPv6 default routes both over the WAN and the mesh, Gluon uses two routing tables for IPv6. As all normal traffic should go over the mesh, the mesh routes are added to the default table (table 0). All routes on the WAN interface are put into table 1 (see /lib/gluon/upgrade/110-network in gluon-core).

There is also an ip -6 rule which routes all IPv6 traffic with a packet mark with the bit 1 set though table 1.


libpacketmark is a library which can be loaded with LD_PRELOAD and will set the packet mark of all sockets created by a process in accordance with the LIBPACKETMARK_MARK environment variable. This allows setting the packet mark for processes which don’t support this themselves. The process must run as root (or at least with CAP_NET_ADMIN) for this to work.

Unfortunately there’s no nice way to set the packet mark via iptables for outgoing packets. The iptables will run after the packet has been created, to even when the packet mark is changed and the packet is re-routed, the source address won’t be rewritten to the default source address of the newly chosen route. libpacketmark avoids this issue as the packet mark will already be set when the packet is created.


To separate the DNS servers in the mesh from the ones on the WAN, the gluon-wan-dnsmasq package provides a secondary DNS daemon which runs on It will automatically use all DNS servers explicitly configured in /etc/config/gluon-wan-dnsmasq or received via DNS/RA on the WAN port. It is important that no DNS servers for the WAN interface are configured in /etc/config/network and that peerdns is set to 0 so the WAN DNS servers aren’t leaked to the primary DNS daemon.

libpacketmark is used to make the secondary DNS daemon send its requests over the WAN interface.

The package gluon-mesh-vpn-fastd provides an iptables rule which will redirect all DNS requests from processes running with the primary group gluon-fastd to, thus making fastd use the secondary DNS daemon.